История, Язык и Культура Сан-Томе и Принсипе
Since the middle of the 14th century, massive Portuguese immigration and slave labor have transformed Sao Tome Island into Africa's largest sugar producer. It became one of Africa's major slave labor markets in the 16th century.
In the 18th century, Sao Tome was one of the world's largest cocoa producers. With coffee and cocoa, it became the country's main economic crop. Later in 1951, Sao Tome became a province in Portuguese rule and in 1960, The Nationalist Movement for Independence or the Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP) was formed.
In 1974, a coup took place over the dictatorship of Salazar and Sitano in Portugal. The new government that ruled the country began a policy of liberation of the colonies. By negotiating with the MLSTP, leading to the return of sovereignty to Sao Tome and Principe on July 12, 1975 (1975) by Manuel Principe Costa. (Manuel Printo da Costa) Secretary-General of the MLSTP is appointed president and Miguel Trovoada is prime minister. It governs according to the socialist regime and has close ties with other communist countries.
In 1978-1979, the government gained military support from Angola in an attempt to suppress a coup, and in 1979 Trovoda was arrested on charges of involvement in a coup attempt. Before being released and deported in 1981.
During the global economic downturn in the 80th century, the governments of Sao Tome and Principe began to move away from the Communist countries. Before declaring himself a loner and turning to Western financial support to cope with the economic downturn.
Year 1988 there was a coup d'etat. This led to the drafting of a new constitution in 1990 which led to a multi-party electoral system. And limit the term of office of the President to 2 terms of 5 years each in the same year Mr. Trovoda returned to the country.
In 1991, for the first time a multi-party election was held, the MLSTP-PSD (Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe - Partido Social Demócrata, a former MLSTP), lost to PCD-GR ( Partido da Convergencia Democratica - Grupo de Replexao) led to the establishment of a temporary government. And the presidential election where Mr Trovoda was victorious as an independent candidate, however, the MLSTP-PSD returned to power in 1994, the same year that Congress gave power to form a self-governing local government. For Principe Island
The coup in 1995 to overthrow President Trovada. This was unsuccessful because the military was under pressure from the host country. Until having to restore power to Mr. Trovada Which was elected to the presidency in the year 2539 for the second term, however, during the years 1996-2540 there was a economic downturn in the country. Leading to protests.
In 1998, the MLSTP-PSD party won the general election. Guilherme Posser da Costa was appointed Prime Minister. Later, in July 2001, Mr. Fradique de Menesez, a major businesswoman of the country. Won the presidential election And was sworn in to take office in early September.
In March 2002, MLSTP-PSD won the parliamentary election with no different vote from its rival. Leading to the formation of a joint government, President De Menezes appointed Gabriel Costa as Prime Minister, however the government dissolved in September. And led to the formation of a new government President De Menezes appointed Mrs. Maria das Neves as Prime Minister.
On July 16, 2003, the military overturned the government of President De Menezes, who was visiting Nigeria, negotiated with the military to reach an agreement. And travel back to the country the following week An amnesty was announced to a group of military officers who carried out the coup.
In September 2004, President De Menesez appointed Prime Minister. Later in December, she formed a new government to replace Maria das Neves, which was asked to resign from her role in connection with corruption. Parliament passed a law on the management of oil resources. Which has the main objective to solve the corruption problem in the economic sector.
In May 2005, the Prime Minister, along with his government, resigned as Central Bank Chairman Maria do Carmo Silveira. Took Prime Minister (7th in the first term of De Menesez's presidency).
In the March 2006 parliamentary elections, there were protests among people in areas facing extreme poverty and poor living conditions. Election results showed that the president's Democratic Movement of Forces for Change (MDFM) won 23 votes from a total of 55 seats in parliament. In February 2008, opposition leader Patrice Trovoada took the lead. Became prime minister Before the coalition was dissolved after a parliamentary vote of mistrust in May.